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Таварихи Гузидаи Нусрат-наме

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Тварихи Гузидаи Нусрат-наме
Physical Description
Materials - Paper
Dimensions - 360 mm x 240 mm; text block 243 x 144 mm
Foliation - 149 ff.
Pricking and Ruling : Black ink with red, blue and gold catchwords and titled; text boxes bordered in gilt.
Script - Nastaliq
Binding : Western
OwnershipOwnership seal on f. 1v Bequest of Mr. Joseph King, 9 January 1886.
A rare illustrated history of Genghis Khan and his descendants down to Shaybani Khan. The author of the work, which is also known as Tavārīkh-i guzīda, is unknown, although it appears that the original text of the work was originally written in 908 AH (1502-03 CE). The current manuscript is dated on f 149 as 970 AH (1563 CE). The preface begins with a doxology in prose and verse, and a mesnevi in praise of Shaybani Khan (here designated by his original name, Shah Bakht Khan). The following section (f 3v) sets forth the origin of the work. As the history of Genghis Khan's ancestors was only imperfectly known, it occurred to His Majesty (Shaybani Khan), after he had conquered Transoxiana and ascended to the throne, to have a work compiled from select records in order to acquaint his subjects with the true history of the world-conqueror and of his descendants. The task was committed to the author, who completed the work in Jumādá al-awwal 908 AH (November 1502 CE). It received the name of Tavārīkh-i Guzīdah-yi Nuṣrat-nāmah. The account which the author gives of their sources appears to include the Jahāngushā of Juvayni, the Guzīdah, an abridgement of the Jāmiᶜ al-Tavārīkh Rashīdī dedicated to Ulugh Beg, and records written in either Mongolian or Uyghur script by Mongol Bakhshis. Those works, however, are not mentioned by name. The account of the Turkic polities and of the early reigns from Genghis Khan to Ghazan is evidently based on the Jāmiᶜ al-Tavārīkh of Rashīd al-Dīn. The author follows its general arrangement and preserves its division of every reign into three parts (qism). But there are also some additions. A special prominence is given to the ancestor of Shaybani, Shayban Khan, to whose history some sections are devoted. The genealogies, especially that of Jochi, are fully given and brought down to the author's time. Other late notices incidentally occur, as, for instance, on f 40r, where Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ (the author of the Shaybāni-nāmah), his father Nūr Saᶜid, and his ancestor Shah Malik, are mentioned as descendants of Bogotai, elder brother of Dubun Bayan.The most important part of the work, however, is undoubtedly the last, which has all the value of a contemporary and official record of the life of Shaybani Khan. It affords detailed information on his eventful career, supplies some precise dates, and, notwithstanding the defective state of the present copy, may usefully supplement existing histories. The anonymous Shaybāni-nāmah published by Berezin in a Russian translation, in the first volume of his Library of Oriental Historians, is partly textually transcribed, partly abridged, from it, but leaves out all the dates. The versified Shaybāni-nāmah of Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ is much more diffuse, but it comprises on a small portion of the same period and is equally lacking in dates. The manuscript was in a state of great confusion when it reached the British Museum, and, although the leaves have since been rearranged, it present condition is still far from perfect. There are several gaps and, in some places, the want of proper sequence was found to be beyond remedy, inasmuch as it was due to the transpositions in some earlier manuscript from which the present copy is derived. The following description shows the contents of each set of consecutive folios: ff 1v-4r : Preface of the author; ff 4r-5r : Utterance of Mevlana Celaladdin Rumi respecting the emergence of the Mongols as an invading force and their subsequent entry into Islam, recorded by his son, Sultan Veled; ff 5r-5v : Names of the sons and grandsons of Oghuz Khan, and of the polities which united with them and entered Islam, breaking off, on f 5v, in a list of polities descended from Oghuz Khan;ff 6v-7v : An abrupt general account of the Turkic peoples and of their descent from Abulcah Khan (Yafes?), son of Noah, including the names of the six sons of Oghuz Khan and of the polities that descended from them;ff 7v-11r : Fasl 1, History of Oghuz Khan and of his polities (Uyghur, Qangli, Qipchaq, Qalaj, Qarluq, and Aghaceri);ff 11r-19r : Fasl 2, Account of the "Turkic" polities now called Mongols (Celair, Suit, Tatar, Mergit, Kurluat, Turghut, Oyrot, Burqut, Urasut, Qurqan, Kerait, Nayman, Bayaut, and Kingit); ff 19r-30r : Fasl 3, An account of the Nirun (Rouran) Mongolic peoples, desceded from Alanqua (Qighan, Salgut, Tangut, Hertegan and Singut, Jines, Tumaqin, Urut and Mengqut, Durman, Barin, Suqnut, Berulas, Juriat, Budaut, Duqlab, Bisut, and Kingqiat). The incident of Temujin's captivity and his release by Surghan Shireh is inserted out of chronological order on ff 17r-18v. A fragment of the early history of Genghis Khan, beginning with his victories over the Tangut and the Mergit, and ending with the plot of Jamuqah and Sengun against him (599 AH/1202-03 CE) is found on ff 28-29;ff 30r-31r : Battle of Qalajin Alt, defeat and death of Ong Khan (Toghrul) (600 AH/1203-04 CE);ff 31r-31v: Submission of the Uyghur people and gifts conferred by Genghis Khan upon their sovereign, Idi Kut;ff 31v-35r: A tabular statement of the corps (Hezareh) commanded by the sons and brothers of Genghis Khan; ff 35r-36v : A misplaced fragment of the history of Timur beginning with the rubric "Toqtamish Khan, after fighting with Urus Khan, takes flight and repairs to Timur Beg" (780 AH/1378-79 CE). It ends with the dispatch by Timur of Mevlana Celaladdin to Husayn Sufi in Khwarezm;ff 37r-38v : Another fragment of Timur's history relating to his dealings with Yusuf Sufi, prince of Khwarezm, and to the conquest of that country by Timur (775-80 AH/1373-79 CE);ff 39r-41v : End of Yesugei, father of Genghis Khan. The genealogy of Genghis Khan is traced backwards in time to Qavamral, son of the Prophet Sulayman, or, according to others, Noah; ff 41v-44v : Precepts given by Genghis Khan to each of his four sons Jochi, Chagatai, Ögedei and Tolui, and countries assigned to each of them;ff 44v-46r : Conquest of (Volga) Bulgaria, Russia and other regions by Batu Khan, surnamed Sain;ff 46r-46v : Age and length of reign of Genghis Khan and of his sons; ff 46v-47r : Preface to the history of Ögedei Khan, divided into three sections (aqsam): his genealogy, his wives and children; events of his reign; and his character. This division, however, is only imperfectly observed in the manuscript, and there is some confusion about the contents of this section;ff 47r-51r : Qism 1, Genealogy ending with the fourth son of Ögedei, Sarban, who is stated to have fled to Badakhshan in 702 AH (1302-03 CE); ff 51r-51v : Expedition of Kuyuk Khan and Ilchidai Noyan to Qulqan; ff 51v-54r : Conquest of Khita in 627 AH (1230 CE), as well as the expedition of Tolui to Qabalqah and his death; ff 54r-55r : Battle of Tuqulqu and siege of Nanking in 631 AH (1234 CE); ff 55r-58v : War with Sultan Celaladdin; ff 58v-59r : Death of Ögedei in 638 AH (1241-42 CE) and expeditions sent by him before his death;ff 59r-60r : Feats performed by Shayban Khan in conjunction with his brothers in 634 AH and 635 AH (1237-39 CE); ff 60r-61r : Qism 2, Buildings of Ögedei Khan; ff 61r-61v : Second account of Ögedei death;ff 61v-62r : Batu Khan's wars in Russia and Bashqortostan 637 AH (1240-41 CE); ff 62r-63v : Account of the Begs who succeeded Chin Timur in Khorasan; ff 63v-64v : Qism 3, character of Ögedei Khan;ff 64v-69v : Qism 1 of the History of Jochi Khan, containing a detailed account of his sons and their descendants; ff 69v-75v : Genealogy of the numerous descendants of Jochi's fifth son, Shayban Khan, ancestor of Shaybani Khan;ff 75v-77r : End of Jochi Khan; ff 77r-78r : Reign of Batu Khan, who died 650 AH (1252-53 CE); ff 78r-79r : Reign of Beregai Khan, who died in 665 AH (1266-67 AH); ff 79r-80v : Reigns of Mengu Timur, second son of Batu (died 681 AH/1282-83 CE), followed by those of Tode Mongke, Bula Buqa and Tuqtai, after which this section breaks off; ff 81r-84v : The descdendants of Chagatai Khan, imperfect at the beginning;ff 84v-86v : History of Chagatai Khan from 622 AH (1225-26 CE) to his death in 638 AH (1240-41 CE); ff 86v-89r : Chagatai Khan's successors from Qara Hulagu down to Duva; ff 89r-90v : The Naibs of Chagatai Khan; ff 90v-93r : Qism 1 of the History of Tolui Khan, his wives and his sons; ff 93r-95v : Reign of Tolui Khan; ff 95v-98r : History of Möngke Qaghan bin Tului Khan; ff 98r-98v : History of Qubilai Qaghan bin Tului Khan, his wives and sons; ff 98v-99v : Qubilai Qaghan's reign (655-693 AH/1257-94 CE); ff 99v-100v : History of Timur Qaghan bin Chingim (Zhengjin) Bin Qubilai Qaghan, also called Öljeitü (Uljaytu); ff 100v-101v : History of Hulagu Khan bin Tolui Khan, his wives and sons; ff 101v-104r : His conquests and the taking of Baghdad (one folio is missing after f 102);ff 104r-104v : Defeat and death of Kitbuqa Noyan; ff 104v-105v : Building of the observatory of Maragheh; ff 105v-109r : History of Abaqa Khan; ff 109r-110v : History of Tekuder bin Hulagu Khan, called, after his accession, Sultan Ahmet; ff 110v-111v : History of Arghun Khan; ff 111v-112r: History of Gaykhatu; ff 112r-115v : History of Ghazan Khan, which breaks off with the first victory gained by Ghazan over the army of Egypt and Syria; ff 116v-117v : A doxology in verse and prosed that is followed by a panegyric upon the reigning sovereign, Abū al-Fātiḥ Muḥammad Shaybānī; ff 117v-119v : A history of Abū al-Khayr Khan; ff 119v-120r : A history of Shah Budagh bin Abū al-Khayr Khan, stating, in four lines, that he died young, leaving two sons, Abū al-Fātiḥ Muḥammad Shaybānī and Maḥmūd Sulṭān Bahādūr; ff 120r-121r : A new doxology in verse, followed by a mesnevi in praise of Shaybani Khan; ff 121r-122r : A history of Shaybani Khan, the first portion of which extends from the death of Shaybani Khan's father to the time when Qasim Khan, then besieged in Astrakhan, sends out the two orphan princes in charge of Qarachin Bahadur. It is reproduced, with some verbal alterations, in the Shaybānī-nāmah edited by Berezin on pp 60-62;ff 122r-133v : A further portion of the history of Shaybani Khan, beginning with the rout of the army of Khorasan before the gates of Vezir in 891 AH (1486-87 CE) and ending with Shaybani's capture of Dabusi by storm in 906 AH (1500-01 CE). It corresponds with pp. 68-88 of Berezin's text, but there are lacunae of small extent after ff 129, 130 and 132. The account of Shaybani's first attempt to seize Samarqand is partially lost; ff 134r-139v : Continuation of the history of Shaybani Khan, from his winter raid upon Shahrukbia, after his taking of Samarqand in 907 AH (1501-02 CE) to his defeat of the two Mongol khans in Arkhiyan, Dhū al-Qaᶜdah 908 AH (April-May 1503 CE), his capture of Tashkent and his return to Samarqand. The account of the same period is condensed to one page in Berezin's text on pp 89-90; ff 140r-145v : A history of Shaybani Khan's expedition against Ahmet Tenbel. Here the author adopts the tone of a Court Chronicler and gives a circumstantial account of the protagonist's progress, of the stages where he encamped, and of the troops that joined him on the way. According to his own statement, Shaybani Khan set out from Samarqand on the 20th of Shawwāl 909 AH (6 April 1504 CE) and he marshalled his forces before Andijon on Thursday, the 17th of Dhū al-Qaᶜdah 909 AH (2 May 1504 CE). Tenbel, who had taken position on a hill outside the fortress, was routed and driven into the place. The narrative breaks off at that first encounter. This last section is a subsequent addition to the work, for the expedition it describes too place more than a year after the date of composition stated in the preface. The campaign against Tenbel is dismissed with a single line in Berezin's text, p. 90, but it is fully described in Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ’s Shaybānī-nāmah, pp 322-338;ff 146r-v : A notice of Muhammad Timur Bahadur Khan, Shaybani's son, and of his wives; ff 147r-148v : An account of Mahmud Bahadur Sultan, the younger brother of Shaybani, and of his wives. In the aforementioned history of Shaybani Khan, the narrative is occasionally interrupted by verses, some of which are of his own composition, and still more frequently by curious comments called temsil, or parables, also ascribed to the Khan. In the latter, the battles he fought are turned into allegories, the various actors being represented as symbolic types of the good and evil principles of spiritual life. One of the temsil has been versified in Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ’s Shaybānī-nāmah, p 282. The poetical surname taken by Shaybani in his verses is Shebani, with a short first vowel for the purposes of metre. Ff. 1r and 2v feature full-page carpets in heavy gold leaf and dark blue; sections of the carpets have rubbed off or faded. There is also a seal on f 1r with the name Abu Talib al-Husayni and the date 1059 AH (1649-50 CE), while lower down is written the name of Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ, although it is not clear what connection he had to this particularly copy. Further to the bottom of the page is also the undated name "ᶜarzdīdah". There are 16 illustrations throughout the text : f. 43r (Tolui Khan and his four sons); f. 45r (Batu Khan, also known as Sain Khan, and his army); f. 50r (Ögedei Qaghan); f. 52r (Kuyuk Khan? caught in a terrible storm); f. 76r (Jochi Khan); f. 86r (image of Chagatai Khan); f. 93r (image of Tolui Khan); f. 96v (image of Möngke Qaghan); f. 103r (image of Hulagu Khan); f. 105v (scholars and scribes at the Observatory of Maragheh); f. 108r (battle scene with Tekuder bin Hulagu Khan?); f. 113r (Ghazan Khan, son of Arghun Khan and greatgrandson of Hulagu Khan); f. 118r (Abulkhayr Khan); f. 130r (Shah Bakht Khan, i.e. Shaybani Khan); f. 137r (battle scene during the campaign in Samarqand and Tashkent); f. 139r (trees in bloom in Samarqand or Tashkent);

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