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дДНК из Монголии, Приамурья, Китая и Японии, от неолита до средних веков

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https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.25.004606v1

The Genomic Formation of Human Populations in East Asia

View ORCID ProfileChuan-Chao Wang, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Alexander N Popov, Hu-Qin Zhang, Hirofumi Matsumura, Kendra Sirak, Olivia Cheronet, Alexey Kovalev, Nadin Rohland, Alexander M Kim, Rebecca Bernardos, Dashtseveg Tumen, Jing Zhao, Yi-Chang Liu, Jiun-Yu Liu, Matthew Mah, Swapan Mallick, Ke Wang, Zhao Zhang, Nicole Adamski, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Kimberly Callan, Brendan J Culleton, Laurie Eccles, Ann Marie Lawson, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Shaoqing Wen, Shi Yan, Fatma Zalzala, Richard Chuang, Ching-Jung Huang, Chung-Ching Shiung, Yuri G Nikitin, Andrei V Tabarev, Alexey A Tishkin, Song Lin, Zhou-Yong Sun, Xiao-Ming Wu, Tie-Lin Yang, Xi Hu, Liang Chen, Hua Du, Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan, Enkhbayar Mijiddorj, Diimaajav Erdenebaatar, Tumur-Ochir Iderkhangai, Erdene Myagmar, Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Msato Nishino, Ken-ichi Shinoda, Olga A Shubina, Jianxin Guo, Qiongying Deng, Longli Kang, Dawei Li, Dongna Li, Rong Lin, Wangwei Cai, Rukesh Shrestha, Ling-Xiang Wang, Lanhai Wei, Guangmao Xie, Hongbing Yao, Manfei Zhang, Guanglin He, Xiaomin Yang, Rong Hu, Martine Robbeets, Stephan Schiffels, Douglas J Kennett, Li Jin, Hui Li, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.25.004606

Abstract

The deep population history of East Asia remains poorly understood due to a lack of ancient DNA data and sparse sampling of present-day people. We report genome-wide data from 191 individuals from Mongolia, northern China, Taiwan, the Amur River Basin and Japan dating to 6000 BCE - 1000 CE, many from contexts never previously analyzed with ancient DNA. We also report 383 present-day individuals from 46 groups mostly from the Tibetan Plateau and southern China. We document how 6000-3600 BCE people of Mongolia and the Amur River Basin were from populations that expanded over Northeast Asia, likely dispersing the ancestors of Mongolic and Tungusic languages. In a time transect of 89 Mongolians, we reveal how Yamnaya steppe pastoralist spread from the west by 3300-2900 BCE in association with the Afanasievo culture, although we also document a boy buried in an Afanasievo barrow with ancestry entirely from local Mongolian hunter-gatherers, representing a unique case of someone of entirely non-Yamnaya ancestry interred in this way. The second spread of Yamnaya-derived ancestry came via groups that harbored about a third of their ancestry from European farmers, which nearly completely displaced unmixed Yamnaya-related lineages in Mongolia in the second millennium BCE, but did not replace Afanasievo lineages in western China where Afanasievo ancestry persisted, plausibly acting as the source of the early-splitting Tocharian branch of Indo-European languages. Analyzing 20 Yellow River Basin farmers dating to ~3000 BCE, we document a population that was a plausible vector for the spread of Sino-Tibetan languages both to the Tibetan Plateau and to the central plain where they mixed with southern agriculturalists to form the ancestors of Han Chinese. We show that the individuals in a time transect of 52 ancient Taiwan individuals spanning at least 1400 BCE to 600 CE were consistent with being nearly direct descendants of Yangtze Valley first farmers who likely spread Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Austroasiatic languages across Southeast and South Asia and mixing with the people they encountered, contributing to a four-fold reduction of genetic differentiation during the emergence of complex societies. We finally report data from Jomon hunter-gatherers from Japan who harbored one of the earliest splitting branches of East Eurasian variation, and show an affinity among Jomon, Amur River Basin, ancient Taiwan, and Austronesian-speakers, as expected for ancestry if they all had contributions from a Late Pleistocene coastal route migration to East Asia.

Глубокая популяционная история Восточной Азии остается малоизученной из-за отсутствия данных древней ДНК и скудной выборки современных людей. Мы сообщаем данные по всему геному от 191 человека из Монголии, северного Китая, Тайваня, бассейна реки Амур и Японии, датируемые 6000 г. до н.э. - 1000 г. н.э., многие из контекстов, которые ранее никогда не анализировались с помощью древней ДНК. Мы также сообщаем о 383 современных индивидуумах из 46 групп, в основном с Тибетского нагорья и южного Китая. Мы документируем, как в период 6000-3600 до н.э. жители Монголии и бассейна реки Амур были из населения, которое распространилось по Северо-Восточной Азии, вероятно, распространяя предков монгольских и тунгусских народов. Во временном разрезе 89 представителей древнего населения Монголии мы мы показываем, как к 3300-2900 гг. до н.э. ямные степные скотоводы распространились с запада в связи с Афанасьевской культурой, хотя мы также документируем мальчика, похороненного в Афанасьевском кургане с происхождением исключительно от местных монгольских охотников-собирателей , представляющий уникальный случай, когда кто-то совершенно не-ямного происхождения был похоронен в соответствии с ямным обрядом. Второе распространение ямного генетического компонента произошло через группы, которые унаследовали около трети своих генов от европейских земледельцев, и которые во втором тысячелетии до н.э. почти полностью вытеснили несмешанных потомков ямников в Монголии, но не вытеснили потомков афанасьевцев в западном Китае, где афанасьевский генетический компонент сохранился, возможно  выступив источником рано отделившейся тохарской ветви индоевропейских языков. Анализируя 20 земледельцев бассейна реки Хуанхэ, датируемых примерно 3000 годом до н. э., мы фиксируем население, которое было вероятным вектором распространения сино-тибетских языков как на Тибетское плато, так и на центральную равнину, где они смешались с южными земледельцами, чтобы сформировать предков ханьцев(китайцев). Мы показываем, что индивидуумы во временном разрезе 52 древних тайваньцев, охватывающем, по крайней мере, 1400 г. до н.э. - 600 г. н.э., соответствовали почти прямым потомкам первых земледельцев долины Янцзы, которые, вероятно, распространили австронезийские, Тай-Кадайские и Австроазиатские языки по Юго-Восточной и Южной Азии и смешавшись с людьми, с которыми они столкнулись, поспособствовали четырехкратному снижению генетической дифференциации в период возникновения сложных обществ. Наконец, мы приводим данные дзёмонских охотников-собирателей из Японии, которые представляют одну из самых ранних отделившихся ветвей восточно-евразийской вариации, и показываем сходство между населением дзёмона, бассейном реки Амур, древним Тайванем и Австронезийцами, как и ожидалось в плане генетики, если бы все они имели вклад от позднеплейстоценовой миграции по прибрежному пути в Восточную Азию.

 

Online Table 1: Newly reported ancient individuals					
					
Master ID	Date: One of two formats. (Format 1) 95.4% CI calibrated radiocarbon age (Conventional Radiocarbon Age BP, Lab number) e.g. 5983-5747 calBCE (6980±50 BP, Beta-226472). (Format 2) Archaeological context date, e.g. 2500-1700 BCE	Locality	Region	Y chromosome haplogroup (called only for males with 1240K data and only if >50000 autosomal SNPs hit)	mtDNA haplogroup only called if >2x coverage
AH1-17	2904-2862 calBCE (4230±25 BP, XA-15378)	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	 .. 
18R21263	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
S91	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
S118	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
S94	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
18R21262	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
18R21264	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
S123	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
18R21266	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
18R21268	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
S96	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
S122	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	n/a (exome capture)
S120	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
S97	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
18R21265	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
18R21267	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
S95	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
AH1-7	3348-3090 calBCE (4490±30 BP, XA-15382)	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (female)	 .. 
S121	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
S119	3400-2800 BCE	Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, China	China	n/a (exome capture)	n/a (exome capture)
I13882	2000-1500 BCE	Rokutsu Shell Mound	Japan	n/a (female)	N9b
I13883	2000-1500 BCE	Rokutsu Shell Mound	Japan	D1b1d1a	N9b2a
I13884	2000-1500 BCE	Rokutsu Shell Mound	Japan	n/a (female)	N9b
I13885	2000-1500 BCE	Rokutsu Shell Mound	Japan	n/a (female)	N9b
I13886	2000-1500 BCE	Rokutsu Shell Mound	Japan	D1b1d1	N9b1
I13887	2000-1500 BCE	Rokutsu Shell Mound	Japan	D1b1d1	N9b1
I6341	3500-3200 BCE	Funadomari	Japan	D	N9b1
I12973	1388-1134 calBCE (3020±25 BP, UCIAMS-226529, PSUG-5432)	Bulgan, Khutag undur sum,  Marzyn Khutul tomb 1	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c	D4j
I12958	1619-1458 calBCE (3265±30 BP, UCIAMS-226527, PSUG-5430) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS-date of 1187-516 calBCE (2685±110 BP, Le-7213)]	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Khukh uzuur, barrow 2 	Mongolia	n/a (female)	G2a1
I6221	3000-2500 BCE	Bayankhongor aimag, Erdenetsogt sum, Shatar chuluu kurgan 2	Mongolia	J1	U5a1+@16192
I6222	3316-2918 calBCE (4415±31 BP, OxA-36222)	Bayankhongor aimag, Erdenetsogt sum, Shatar chuluu kurgan 2	Mongolia	R1b1a1a2a1a	R
I13957	2858-2505 calBCE (4095±25 BP, PSUAMS-6942) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS-date of 3011-2480 calBCE (4180±100 BP, Le-7219)]	Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kurgak govi barrow 1, infant burial in main grave 	Mongolia	C2b1a1	G2a+152
I13180	3013-2876 calBCE (4290±35 BP, PSUAMS-6944) [we used this direct AMS date on the same petrous bone analyzed for DNA instead of a previous and marginally non-overalpping AMS date of 2866-2577 calBCE (4114±29 BP, OxA-36230) on a different skeletal element supposed to be from the same individual, or a non-AMS date of 2572-2151 calBCE (3900±70 BP, Le-7212) also a different skeletal element supposed to be from the same individual]	Bayan-Ulgii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kumdii govi barrow, burial 2 	Mongolia	n/a (female)	A+152+16362
I12977	2913-2777 calBCE (4250±25 BP, UCIAMS-226551, PSUG-5466) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS date of 2471-1781 calBCE (3725±115 BP, Le-7220)]	Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kulala Ula barrow 1, secondary burial	Mongolia	C2b1a1	D4b1
I6361	2618-2487 calBCE (4034±16 BP, GrM-12938) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS date of 2471-2044 calBCE (3825±70 BP, Le-7215)]	Bayan-Ulgii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kurgak govi barrow 2 secondary burial	Mongolia	n/a (female)	A+152+16362
I12978	2570-2476 calBCE [Rcombine of 2567-2468 calBCE (3983±17 BP, GrM-12984) and 2833-2487 calBCE (4050±25 BP, UCIAMS-226530, PSUG-5433); use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS dates of 2461-2152 calBCE (3838±40 BP, Le-6932, Le-6933, Le-6939 R_Combine)]	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Yagshiin hodoo barrow 1, bone find B	Mongolia	R1b1a1a2a2	C4+152
I12957	2571-2464 calBCE (3980±25 BP, UCIAMS-226526, PSUG-5429)	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Yagshiin khodoo, Barrow 3	Mongolia	R1b1a1a2a2	T1a1
I6369	752-416 calBCE (2455±20 BP, PSUAMS-3114)	Khentii, Murun sum, Bus khairkhan Tomb 2 	Mongolia	n/a (female)	B5b
I6353	1002-909 calBCE [Rcombine of 1002-846 calBCE (2780±25 BP, PSUAMS-2946), 1072-903 calBCE (2826±30 BP, OxA-36456)]	Uvurkhangai, Khujirt sum, Shunkhlai Uul, Tomb 9	Mongolia	Q1a1a1	G2b2
I12969	1119-980 calBCE (2875±20 BP, UCIAMS-226545, PSUG-5460)	Khentii, Delgerkhaan sum, Khanan 3	Mongolia	Q1a1a1	F1b1+@152
I13178	1042-916 calBCE (2825±20 BP, UCIAMS-226531, PSUG-5434)	Khentii, Bayan-Adraga sum, Shuusyn boom Tomb 6	Mongolia	n/a (female)	R
I13958	1023-912 calBCE (2820±20 BP, UCIAMS-226558, PSUG-5473)	Tuv aimag, Altanbulag sum, Erdenekhairkhan uulyn ar, Tomb 3 	Mongolia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	H2a
I7032	976-838 calBCE (2765±20 BP, PSUAMS-4004)	Khentii, Batshireet sum, Tugsiin uvdug Tomb 1	Mongolia	n/a (female)	C4a2a1
I12971	976-838 calBCE (2765±20 BP, UCIAMS-226547, PSUG-5462)	Dornod aimag, Gurvanzagal sum, Khadan khuv Tomb 1	Mongolia	n/a (female)	D4j7
I13963	968-833 calBCE (2750±20 BP, PSUAMS-6943)	Khentii, Delgerkhaan sum, Rashaant tolgoi, tomb 6	Mongolia	n/a (female)	 C5b1b 
I6368	791-569 calBCE [Rcombine of 784-544 calBCE (2510±20 BP, PSUAMS-3907) and 800-571 calBCE (2550±20 BP, PSUAMS-4252)]	Khentii, Delgerkhaan sum, Khanan Tomb 1a	Mongolia	n/a (female)	L3
I6349	895-801 calBCE (2675±20 BP, PSUAMS-7398)	Sükhbaatar aimag, Dariganga sum, Baaran-Khavtsal	Mongolia	Q1a1a1	D4m2
I6352	1071-925 calBCE (2845±20 BP, PSUAMS-7276)	Uvurkhangai, Khujirt sum, Shunkhlai Uul, Grave #1	Mongolia	Q1a1a	F1b1b
I6365	814-783 calBCE (2610±20 BP, PSUAMS-7282)	Khuvsgul aimag, Burentogtoh sum, Uushigiin uvur, slab grave 1	Mongolia	N1c1a	D4o1
I6359	1100-400 BCE [range based on other dates from the same cultural context and genetic cluster]	Khuvsgul aimag, Alag-Erdene sum, Erhel nuur, Ulaan tolgoi 	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c	C5c
I6357	1100-400 BCE [This range is based on other dates from the same cultural context and genetic cluster. We ignore the direct date of 1277-1383 calCE (680±15 BP, PSUAMS-7278) on a post-cranial element for this individual because it mismatches the archaeological chronology as well as the genetic data (which match each other). The post-cranial was sampled from a box separate from the petrous bone analyzed for ancient DNA, which in the context of the mismatch with the genetic and archaeological context makes it plausible that the post-cranial element is not from the individual analyzed for DNA.]	Tuv aimag, Altabulag sum, Tariat Brigad Tomb 5	Mongolia	n/a (female)	D4b2
I6364	1023-912 calBCE (2820±20 BP, PSUAMS-7281)	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Uliastain dood denj I, kurgan 4	Mongolia	n/a (female)	M9a1a1c1
I13504	487-391 calBCE (2360±20 BP, UCIAMS-226556, PSUG-5471)	Khuvsgul aimag, Ulaan-Uul sum	Mongolia	Q1a2a	W
I6230	349-97 calBCE (2140±20 BP, PSUAMS-7396)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #47, Burial 2	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c1	U2e1h
I7029	354-114 calBCE (2155±20 BP, PSUAMS-3877)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 53, burial 2	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c1	U4a1
I7026	356-177 calBCE (2180±15 BP, PSUAMS-4503)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #41, Burial 6	Mongolia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	C4a1a+195
I6231	358-174 calBCE (2180±20 BP, PSUAMS-7397)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #47, Burial 3	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c1	F1b1b
I6226	360-184 calBCE (2190±25 BP, PSUAMS-7270)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #35, Burial 2	Mongolia	n/a (female)	H91
I6224	361-203 calBCE (2210±20 BP, PSUAMS-7268)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #33, Burial 3	Mongolia	R1a1a1b	T2b34
I6233	361-203 calBCE (2210±20 BP, PSUAMS-7272)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery, Grave #49, Burial 1	Mongolia	R1a1a1b2	F1b1+@152
I7023	365-204 calBCE (2215±20 BP, PSUAMS-4001)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #31, Burial 6 	Mongolia	n/a (female)	H
I7028	381-208 calBCE (2235±20 BP, PSUAMS-4597)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 46, burial 1	Mongolia	n/a (female)	H2a2a
I6232	387-209 calBCE (2245±20 BP, PSUAMS-7271)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #48, Burial 6	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c1	U4b1a1a1
I7030	391-209 calBCE (2250±20 BP, PSUAMS-3722)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 56 	Mongolia	R1a1a1b	D4b1a2a1
I7022	391-209 calBCE (2250±20 BP, PSUAMS-4000)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #11, Burial 7	Mongolia	Q1a1b1	C4a1a+195
I7024	391-209 calBCE (2250±20 BP, PSUAMS-4002)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #36, Burial 2	Mongolia	R1a1a1b2	R1b1
I7027	399-235 calBCE (2275±20 BP, PSUAMS-4003) [used the PSUAMS date on the same skeletal element analyzed for ancient DNA instead of the non-overlapping measurement on an independent sample from the same individual of 358-195 calBCE (2188±15 BP, GrM-12941) published in Wilkins et al. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2020]	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #45, Burial 2	Mongolia	R1a1a1b	T1a1
I6223	400-200 BCE	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 1 burial 5	Mongolia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	..
I6225	400-200 BCE [This range is based on other dates from the same cultural context and a brother from the same genetic cluster. We ignore the direct date of 1299-1404 calCE (605±20 BP, PSUAMS-7269) on a post-cranial element for this individual because it mismatches the archaeological chronology as well as the genetic data (which match each other). The post-cranial was sampled from a box separate from the petrous bone analyzed for ancient DNA, which in the context of the mismatch with the genetic and archaeological context makes it plausible that the post-cranial element is not from the individual analyzed for DNA.] 	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #33, Burial 5	Mongolia	R1a1a	T2b34
I6356	400-200 BCE [This range is based on other dates from the same cultural context and genetic cluster. We ignore the direct date of 1386-1217 calBCE (3030±20 BP, PSUAMS-7277) on a mandible for this individual because it mismatches the archaeological chronology as well as the genetic data (which match each other). The mandible sampled for DNA  was different from the petrous bone used for genetic analysis; these skeletal elements were from a commingled burial so it is plausible that the date does not correspond to the genetically analyzed individual.] 	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery, Grave #58, Burial 2	Mongolia	Q1a2a	C4a1a3
I12970	400-235 calBCE (2280±20 BP, UCIAMS-226546, PSUG-5461)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 48 burial 7	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c1	A8a
I12956	405-364 calBCE (2305±20 BP, UCIAMS-226544, PSUG-5459)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 48 burial 4	Mongolia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	n/a (<2x)
I13965	397-233 calBCE (2270±20 BP, UCIAMS-226560, PSUG-5475)	Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Tsengel sum, Biluut 2 barrow 4 	Mongolia	n/a (female)	G2a1
I6263	358-181 calBCE (2185±20 BP, PSUAMS-7273)	Bayan Ulgii aimag, Tsengel sum, Tsagaan-Uul, Khuvsgol	Mongolia	n/a (female)	H5a1
I6228	3-120 calCE (1950±20 BP, PSUAMS-7395)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #44 	Mongolia	C2b1a1b1	D4j12
I14194	971-834 calBCE (2755±20 BP, UCIAMS-226562, PSUG-5476)	Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Ulaanzukh,  Tomb 32	Mongolia	n/a (female)	C4a1
I13175	383-535 calCE (1625±20 BP, UCIAMS-226554, PSUG-5469)	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Uliastai deed denj II kurgan 1 burial 1 (secondary)	Mongolia	R1b1c	D4b1a2a
I13174	1500-1423 calBCE (3185±20 BP, UCIAMS-226564, PSUG-5483) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1493-1091 calBCE (3050±70 BP, Le-6638)]	Khovd, Munkhkhairkhan sum, Khukh tolgoi barrow 9 	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c	U5a2
I13959	1441-1306 calBCE (3125±20 BP, UCIAMS-226559, PSUG-5474) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1972-1306 calBCE (3340±130 BP, Le-6637)]	Khovd, Munkhkhairkhan sum, Ulaan tolgoi, barrow 3	Mongolia	n/a (female)	n/a (<2x)
I12972	1447-1309 calBCE (3130±20 BP, UCIAMS-226553, PSUG-5468)	Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Adgiin gol Tomb 21	Mongolia	Q1a1	D4i
I14037	1420-1296 calBCE (3095±20 BP, UCIAMS-226561, PSUG-5475)	Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Bulgiin ekh, Tomb 47 	Mongolia	Q1a1a	M11b
I13964	1500-800 BCE	Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Ulaanzukh, Tomb 17	Mongolia	n/a (female)	C4a1a+195
I12960	1437-1304 calBCE (3120±20 BP, UCIAMS-226528, PSUG-5431)	Uvurkhangai, Khujirt sum, Shunkhlai Uul, Tomb 2	Mongolia	Q1a1	C4a1a+195
I12506	1438-1299 calBCE (3115±25 BP, PSUAMS-6933) [use instead of previous date of 1608-1416 calBCE (3215±40 BP, OxA-36459) not from the same skeletal element]	Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Ulaanzukh, Tomb 42 	Mongolia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	n/a (<2x)
I12976	1437-1304 calBCE (3120±20 BP, UCIAMS-226550, PSUG-5465) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1396-845 calBCE (2910±110 BP, Le-7226)]	Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kulala Ula barrow 2 	Mongolia	N1	U2e2a1a2
I7033	1209-1038 calBCE (2920±20 BP, PSUAMS-4005)	Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery kurgan 59	Mongolia	R1a1a1b	R
I6363	1214-1058 calBCE [Rcombine of 1210-1047 calBCE (2925±20 BP, PSUAMS-7280) and 1277-1057 calBCE (2967±31 BP, OxA-X-2737-54); do not use the less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1208-841 calBCE (2840±70 BP, Le-7979)]	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Khudzrtyn gol II, barrow 1, burial 4 (main burial)	Mongolia	R1a1a1b2a2b	U2e1
I6351	1003-854 calBCE (2785±20 BP, PSUAMS-7275)	Uvs aimag, Khyargas sum, Urgun shireg, Tomb 3	Mongolia	n/a (female)	C4b1
I13505	1119-980 calBCE (2875±20 BP, UCIAMS-226557, PSUG-5472)	Bayankhongor aimag, Erdentsogt sum	Mongolia	Q1a1a1	A+152+16362
I7039	1209-1038 calBCE (2920±20 BP, PSUAMS-4006)	Khovd, Duut sum, Khoit Tsenkheriin gol 1988 barrow 3	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c	D4j
I13768	1210-1047 calBCE (2925±20 BP, PSUAMS-7115)	Bayankhongor aimag, Ulziit sum, Muunit uul	Mongolia	N	D4j1
I12975	1226-1056 calBCE (2950±20 BP, UCIAMS-226549, PSUG-5464)	Khuvsgul aimag, Khankh sum, Khavtsal II Tomb 1 (Khirgisuur) 	Mongolia	C2b1a	U5a1a2a
I13767	1374-1131 calBCE (3005±20 BP, UCIAMS-226534, PSUG-5437)	Bayankhongor aimag, Ulziit sum, Khar Sair am	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c	R1b1
I13766	1381-1131 calBCE (3010±25 BP, UCIAMS-226533, PSUG-5436)	Bayankhongor aimag, Erdentsogt sum	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c	C5b1b
I6262	1396-1231 calBCE (3050±20 BP, PSUAMS-3111)	Bayankhongor aimag, Khar Sairiin Am, Khirigsuur	Mongolia	n/a (female)	A8a1
I6264	1397-1236 calBCE (3055±20 BP, PSUAMS-3112)	Bayankhongor aimag, Khar Sairiin Am, Khirigsuur	Mongolia	n/a (female)	A8a1
I6347	1411-1284 calBCE (3080±20 BP, PSUAMS-3113)	Uvs aimag, Züünkhangai sum, Savaa Khar	Mongolia	n/a (female)	K2a5
I6362	1015-911 calBCE (2815±20 BP, PSUAMS-2955)	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Khudzhirtyn gol I, kurgan 2	Mongolia	n/a (female)	D4b1
I6367	1258-1088 calBCE (2955±20 BP, PSUAMS-7284) [use instead of less precise but agreeing date of 1260-1040 calBCE (2820±30 BP, Beta-306037)]	Bayan-Ulgii aimag, Tsengel sum, Biluut 2, barrow 3	Mongolia	O2a2b1a1a	C4a1
I12955	1948-1777 calBCE (3545±20 BP, UCIAMS-226543, PSUG-5458)	Zavkhan, Bayantes sum, Khukh Khushoony bom, Barrow 3	Mongolia	N1c1a	D4i
I6348	1746-1630 calBCE (3395±25 BP, PSUAMS-7274)	Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Haruulyn Gozgor tomb 1-113	Mongolia	Q1a2a1c	HV12b1
I13173	1879-1694 calBCE (3460±20 BP, UCIAMS-226552, PSUG-5467) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS date of 1609-1232 calBCE (3150±70 BP, Le-6936)]	Khovd, Munkhkhairkhan sum, Ulan goviin uzuur barrow 2	Mongolia	N	H15b1
I13176	890-982 calCE (1115±20 BP, UCIAMS-226555, PSUG-5470)	Khovd, Bulgan sum, Hudzhirtyn gol II, kurgan 1 burial 3 (secondary)	Mongolia	R1b1c	D4i
I12974	1225-1285 calCE (750±20 BP, UCIAMS-226548, PSUG-5463)	Khentii, Murun sum, Bus khairkhan Tomb 3 	Mongolia	n/a (female)	C4a1a+195
I13961	1282-1388 calCE (660±15 BP, PSUAMS-7114)	Dornod aimag, Gurvanzagal sum  Tsagaan chuluut kurgan 1	Mongolia	n/a (female)	A+152+16362
I7021	5211-5000 calBCE (6145±35 BP, PSUAMS-3931)	Dornod aimag, Bulgan sum, Norovlin Uul burial	Mongolia	C2b1a1	D4h4
I7031	4458-4364 calBCE (5590±20 BP, PSUAMS-4598)	Dornod aimag, Bayantumen sum, Kherlengiin baruun ereg (Kerulen River right bank), Grave 2 (1968 y.)	Mongolia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	C5b1
I6358	5974-5747 calBCE (6965±35 BP, PSUAMS-7279)	Dornod aimag, Bayantumen sum, Kherlen River South bank nearby Choibalsan town 	Mongolia	n/a (female)	F1b1+@152
I13698	5700-5000 BCE	Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Egiin-gol river valley, Marzyn Khutul, tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 2	Mongolia	C2b1a1	F1b1+@152
I13701	5721-5614 calBCE (6739±40 BP, AA-107617)	Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Egiin-gol river valley, Kharuulyn gozgor, tomb 1-116	Mongolia	n/a (female)	C4a1a3
I13179	5607-5477 calBCE (6565±30 BP, UCIAMS-226532, PSUG-5435)	Bulgan, Khutag undur sum, Kharuulyn gozgor, tomb 1-116	Mongolia	n/a (female)	C4a1a3
I14000	5575-5474 calBCE (6571±47 BP, COL3897.1.1)	Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Egiin-gol river valley, Kharuulyn gozgor, tomb 1-117-1, sceleton 3	Mongolia	n/a (female)	D4j
I11696	5632-5531 calBCE (6655±30 BP, UCIAMS-226523, PSUG-5426)	Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum,  Marzyn khutul, Tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 1	Mongolia	C2b1a1	D4j
I11698	5632-5515 calBCE (6645±35 BP, UCIAMS-226525, PSUG-5428)	Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum,  Marzyn khutul, Tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 2	Mongolia	C2b1a1	D4b1c
I11697	5617-5491 calBCE (6610±30 BP, UCIAMS-226524, PSUG-5427)	Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum,  Marzyn khutul, Tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 4	Mongolia	C2b1a1	D4j8
I6366	1410-1261 calBCE (3065±25 BP, PSUAMS-7283)	Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Tsengel sum, Biluut 2 barrow 2	Mongolia	n/a (female)	J2b1a2a
I1208	450-750 CE	Primorsky Krai, Chernyatino 5, Mohe-Bohai Graveyard	Russia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	H2
I14819	3750-3600 BCE [layer date based on mothering children with I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	C5a
I14308	5400-3600 BCE	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	C2a1a2(xC2a1a2a)	D4o2a
I3356	3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	C2a1a3(xC2a1a3a)	C5b1
I3354	5371-5219 calBCE (6325±35 BP, PSUAMS-2070)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	D4
I1196	5213-5008 calBCE (6155±35 BP, Poz-83476)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	C5b1
I1206	5213-4834 calBCE (6080±70 BP, TERRA-b06129705)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	R
I1198	5034-4806 calBCE (6030±40 BP, Poz-83478)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	D4l2
I1193	4981-4795 calBCE (5995±35 BP, Poz-83474)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	C2a1a3	C5b
I3355	4981-4787 calBCE (5985±35 BP, PSUAMS-2114)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	C2a1a(xC2a1a1,C2a1a2,C2a1a3)	C5a
I1197	4956-4729 calBCE (5970±40 BP, Poz-83477)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	C5a
I1194	4792-4604 calBCE (5840±35 BP, Poz-83475)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	C5a
I1190	4721-4335 calBCE (5860±100 BP, TERRA-06129717)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	D4e5
I1192	4932-4608 calBCE (5890±60 BP, TERRA-b06129733)	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	C2a1(xC2a1a1a,C2a1a2a)	B4d1'2'3
I14307	5400-3600 BCE	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	D4o2a
I14772	3750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being daughter of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	C5a
I14774	3750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being daughter of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (female)	C5a
I14773	3750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being son of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	C5a
I14771	3750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being son of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]	Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2	Russia	C2a(xC2a1a1,C2a1a2a)	C5a
I1209	1039-1224 calCE (880±35 BP, Poz-83439)	Roshino-4, Primorsky Krai	Russia	O2	D4a1e
I3358	1050-1220 calCE (875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2115)	Roshino-4, Primorsky Krai	Russia	n/a (female)	D4a1
I15926	1800-1950 CE	Nevelsk 2	Russia	D1a2b(xD1a2b1)	N9b1
I1202	996-830 calBCE (2760±35 BP, Poz-83438)	Pospelovo 1, Primorsky Krai	Russia	N1a(xN1a1,N1a2)	C5b
I13721	250-650 CE	Green Island, Gongguan site	Taiwan	n/a (female)	Y2a1
I13722	250-650 CE	Green Island, Gongguan site	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	Y2a1
I3618	1402-1262 calBCE (3060±20 BP, PSUAMS-2268)	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O2a2b2a2	R
I8071	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	R
I13695	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	F4b
I8076	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	R30
I8080	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a1a1a	F3b1a+16093
I8075	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	E2b
I3611	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	E1a1a1
I3616	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	B4b1a2
I3615	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	R
I3620	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	R
I3617	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F4b1
I3621	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	R9c1b2
I15159	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F4b1
I3614	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O2a2b2a	R
I3612	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O2a2b2a2	E1a1a1
I3613	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a1a1a1	R
I3619	395-536 calCE (1610±25 BP, PSUAMS-2075)	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F3b1a+16093
I14925	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	M7b1a2a1
I14934	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a1a1a1	E2a
I14933	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a2	F3b1a
I14931	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O2a2	E1a1a1
I8072	510-870 CE	Yilan, HanBen	Taiwan	O1a	E1a1a
I14929	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O2a2b	B4a1a
I8074	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F3b1a+16093
I8081	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a1a1a	F3b1a2
I15158	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a2	B4b1a2f
I13692	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	M7c1c3
I3728	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F3b1a+16093
I3736	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a1a1a1	F4b1
I3732	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F1a3a
I3735	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	E1a
I3727	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	D6a2
I14937	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	B4a1a
I3734	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O2a2a1a2	E1a
I3731	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a1a1a1a1	F3b1
I3733	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O1a1a1a1	F3b1
I8078	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	O2a2b2	E1a1
I15156	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	D6a2
I13697	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	R
I15164	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	E2a
I15160	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	F4b1
I15162	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	E1a1a
I15166	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	E1a1a
I8079	150-465 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F3b1
I14930	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	E1a1a1
I14928	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	B5a2a1+16129
I14926	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	F4b1
I13694	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	B4a1a
I14927	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (female)	M7b1a2a1
I13696	510-870 CE	Yilan, Hanben	Taiwan	n/a (<50000 SNPs)	n/a (<2x)

 

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Интересная работа

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1 час назад, Koshoj сказал:

The Genomic Formation of Human Populations in East Asia

Подскажите, в каком файле результаты уДНК и мтДНК ?

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Самые интересные результаты с Монголии.

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I6228    Mongolia_EIA_7_Xiongnu    Mongolia    M    C2b1a1b1    D4j12

 I13175    Mongolia_IA_Xianbei    Mongolia    M    R1b1c    D4b1a2a

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29 минут назад, Samtat сказал:

I6228    Mongolia_EIA_7_Xiongnu    Mongolia    M    C2b1a1b1    D4j12

Наша кыргыз-кыпчакская гаплогруппа.

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C2b1a1b1 - F1756

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58 минут назад, Samtat сказал:

 I13175    Mongolia_IA_Xianbei    Mongolia    M    R1b1c    D4b1a2a

М73?

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Вроде V88.

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Понятно

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Ещё железный век :


I12969    3000    Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave    M    Q1a1a1            F1b1+@152
I6349    2798    Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave    M    Q1a1a1            D4m2
I6352    2948    Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave    M    Q1a1a            F1b1b
I6365    2749    Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave    M    N1c1a            D4o1
I6359    2700    Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave    M    Q1a2a1c            C5c
I13504    2389    Mongolia_EIA_3                     M    Q1a2a            W
I6230    2173    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    Q1a2a1c1    U2e1h
I7029    2184    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    Q1a2a1c1    U4a1
I6231    2216    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    Q1a2a1c1    F1b1b
I6224    2232    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    R1a1a1b            T2b34
I6233    2232    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    R1a1a1b2    F1b1+@152
I6232    2248    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    Q1a2a1c1    U4b1a1a1
I7030    2250    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    R1a1a1b            D4b1a2a1
I7022    2250    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    Q1a1b1            C4a1a+195
I7024    2250    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    R1a1a1b2    R1b1
I7027    2267    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    R1a1a1b            T1a1
I6225    2250    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    R1a1a            T2b34
I6356    2250    Mongolia_EIA_4_Sagly            M    Q1a2a            C4a1a3

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Бронзовый век:

I12957    Mongolia_EBA_2_Chemurchek    Mongolia    M         R1b1a1a2a2    T1a1
I13174    Mongolia_LBA_1_MongunTaiga    Mongolia    M       Q1a2a1c           U5a2
I12972    Mongolia_LBA_2_Ulaanzukh    Mongolia    M             Q1a1            D4i
I14037    Mongolia_LBA_2_Ulaanzukh    Mongolia    M             Q1a1a           M11b
I12960    Mongolia_LBA_2_Ulaanzukh    Mongolia    M             Q1a1             C4a1a+195
I12976    Mongolia_LBA_3_MongunTaiga    Mongolia    M        N1                U2e2a1a2
I7033    Mongolia_LBA_3_MongunTaiga    Mongolia    M          R1a1a1b            R
I6363    Mongolia_LBA_3_MongunTaiga    Mongolia    M          R1a1a1b2a2b    U2e1
I13505    Mongolia_LBA_4_CenterWest    Mongolia    M            Q1a1a1          A+152+16362
I7039    Mongolia_LBA_4_CenterWest    Mongolia    M               Q1a2a1c            D4j
I13768    Mongolia_LBA_4_CenterWest    Mongolia    M              N                       D4j1
I12975    Mongolia_LBA_4_CenterWest    Mongolia    M              C2b1a            U5a1a2a
I13767    Mongolia_LBA_4_CenterWest    Mongolia    M              Q1a2a1c          R1b1
I13766    Mongolia_LBA_4_CenterWest    Mongolia    M              Q1a2a1c          C5b1b
I6367    Mongolia_LBA_5_CenterWest    Mongolia    M                O2a2b1a1a      C4a1
I12955    Mongolia_MBA_1_Munkhkhairkhan    Mongolia    M    N1c1a               D4i
I6348    Mongolia_MBA_1_Munkhkhairkhan    Mongolia    M       Q1a2a1c           HV12b1
I13173    Mongolia_MBA_2_Munkhkhairkhan    Mongolia    M     N                       H15b1

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Неолит :

I7021      Mongolia_N_East       Mongolia         M    C2b1a1    D4h4
I13698    Mongolia_N_North    Mongolia           M    C2b1a1    F1b1+@152
I11696    Mongolia_N_North    Mongolia           M    C2b1a1    D4j
I11698    Mongolia_N_North    Mongolia           M    C2b1a1    D4b1c
I11697    Mongolia_N_North    Mongolia           M    C2b1a1    D4j8

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7 минут назад, Samtat сказал:

I6363    Mongolia_LBA_3_MongunTaiga    Mongolia    M          R1a1a1b2a2b    U2e1

Нисходящие от этой линии встречаются на Ближнеи Востоке, у ашкеназов и в Европе. Судя по мтДНК U2e1 видимо -это выходец из европейских степей.

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Средневековая Монголия :

I13176 Mongolia_Medieval Mongolia M R1b1c D4i
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А еще у кого кроме сюнну и киргизских кыпчаков встречается C2b1a1b1?

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12 минут назад, Le_Raffine сказал:

А еще у кого кроме сюнну и киргизских кыпчаков встречается C2b1a1b1?

https://www.yfull.com/tree/C-F1756/

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На МолГене запостили новую работу :

A dynamic 6,000-year genetic history of Eurasia's Eastern Steppe

 

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.25.008078v1

 

Вроде как есть палеоднк  хунну, тюрков и уйгуров . Изучайте, я ещё не смотрел. :)

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https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.25.008078v1

A dynamic 6,000-year genetic history of Eurasia's Eastern Steppe

Choongwon JeongKe Wang, Shevan Wilkin, William Timothy Treal Taylor, Bryan Miller, Sodnom Ulziibayar, Raphaela Stahl, Chelsea Chiovelli, Jan H. Bemmann, Florian Knolle, Nikolay Kradin, Bilikto A. Bazarov, Denis A. Miyagashev, Prokopiy B. Konovalov, Elena Zhambaltarova, Alicia Ventresca Miller, Wolfgang Haak, Stephan Schiffels, Johannes Krause, Nicole Boivin, Erdene Myagmar, Jessica Hendy, Christina Warinner

 

 

Abstract

The Eastern Eurasian Steppe was home to historic empires of nomadic pastoralists, including the Xiongnu and the Mongols. However, little is known about the region's population history. Here we reveal its dynamic genetic history by analyzing new genome-wide data for 214 ancient individuals spanning 6,000 years. We identify a pastoralist expansion into Mongolia ca. 3000 BCE, and by the Late Bronze Age, Mongolian populations were biogeographically structured into three distinct groups, all practicing dairy pastoralism regardless of ancestry. The Xiongnu emerged from the mixing of these populations and those from surrounding regions. By comparison, the Mongols exhibit much higher Eastern Eurasian ancestry, resembling present-day Mongolic-speaking populations. Our results illuminate the complex interplay between genetic, sociopolitical, and cultural changes on the Eastern Steppe.

Восточно-Евразийская степь была родиной исторических империй кочевых скотоводов, в том числе хунну и монголов. Однако об истории населения этого региона известно очень мало. Здесь мы раскрываем его динамическую генетическую историю, анализируя новые геномные данные по 214 древним особям, охватывающие 6000 лет. Мы идентифицируем скотоводческую экспансию в Монголию около 3000 лет до н.э., и к позднему бронзовому веку, монгольские популяции были биогеографически структурированы на три отдельные группы, все практикующие молочное скотоводство независимо от происхождения. Хунну возникли в результате смешивания этих популяций и популяций из близлежащих регионов. Для сравнения, монголы имеют гораздо более высокие показатели восточно-евразийского компонента, похожие на современные монголоязычные популяции. Наши результаты освещают сложное взаимодействие между генетическими, социально-политическими и культурными изменениями в Восточной степи.

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Генотипы доступны на сайте лаборатории Райха:
https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/sites/reich.hms.harvard.edu/files/inline-files/Archive_0.zip

Кто-то уже скачал и проанализировал афанасьевский образец:
I6222   AT_26, Grave #2, MONU_26, Grave #2   Pinhasi, Ron; Cheronet, Olivia; Sirak, Kendra;  Dashtseveg, Tumen   petrous (CBD)   5067   3316-2918 calBCE (4415±31 BP, OxA-36222)   Confident - The genetic analysis was done on a different individuals from the sample used to produce the direct 14C date (published in Wilkins et al. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2020). However, the 14C date matches to the Afanasievo period, and this individual clusters genetically with previously reported individuals from the Afansievo culture from the Altai region of Russia, providing confidence int he cultural assignment.   Mongolia_Chalcolithic_1_Afanasievo   Yes   Bayankhongor aimag, Erdenetsogt sum, Shatar chuluu kurgan 2   Mongolia   46.4   100.82   1240K capture   1   0.136   146406   M   R1b1a1a2a1a     25    R   [0.815,0.861]   0.042   22    n/a (<200 SNPs)    n/a (<200 SNPs)   ds.UDG.half   S6222.E1.L1     0.0095    QUESTIONABLE (mtmatchmax=0.861)                                                            

https://pastebin.com/mAcLwZaQ

R1b L1349   derived
R1b1a1  PF6459  derived
R1b1a1b F69 derived
R1b1a1b PF6497  derived
R1b1a1b1a1  L52 derived
 

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11 часов назад, Samtat сказал:

На МолГене запостили новую работу :

A dynamic 6,000-year genetic history of Eurasia's Eastern Steppe

 

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.25.008078v1

 

Вроде как есть палеоднк  хунну, тюрков и уйгуров . Изучайте, я ещё не смотрел. :)

Супер

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Культура плиточных могил :

 
I6369 2534 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia F n/a (female) B5b
I6353 2906 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia M Q1a1a1 G2b2
I12969 3000 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia M Q1a1a1 F1b1+@152
I13178 2929 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia F n/a (female) R
I13958 2918 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia M n/a (<50000 SNPs) H2a
I7032 2857 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia F n/a (female) C4a2a1
I12971 2857 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia F n/a (female) D4j7
I13963 2851 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia F n/a (female)  C5b1b 
I6368 2630 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia F n/a (female) L3
I6349 2798 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia M Q1a1a1 D4m2
I6352 2948 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia M Q1a1a F1b1b
I6365 2749 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia M N1c1a D4o1
I6359 2700 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia M Q1a2a1c C5c
I6357 2700 Mongolia_EIA_1_SlabGrave Mongolia F n/a (female) D4b2

 

По некоторым версиям предки тюркских и монгольских народов .

 

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Плиточники из второй работы :

 

BUL001 M M11b Q1a1a1 (Q-M120) Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
BUL002 M M10a1b G2a2b2a1a1c1a2a1a (G-FGC226; G-FGC249) Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN001 M D5a2a1b Q1a1a1 (Q-M265; Q-M120) Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN002 F C4a1b - Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN003 F C4a1a - Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN005 F D4 - Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN006 F C4 - Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN007 M D4b1a2 Q1a1 (Q-F1096) Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN009 F C4a1a - Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN010 F D5a2a - Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
ULN015 F D5a2a1b - Ulaanzuukh_SlabGrave
PTO001 F D4j+(16286) - Slab Grave  
MIT001 M D1j Q1a1a1 (Q-M120) Slab Grave  
BOR001 F - - Slab Grave  
DAR001 M F1b1f Q1b2 (Q-Y1151; Q-Y1150) Slab Grave  

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SKT007 M C4 Q1a2a1c (Q-L334; Q-L330) early Xiongnu
SKT008 M H Q1a2a1c (Q-L334; Q-L330) earlyXiongnu_west
DEL001 M D4j11 Q1a2a1c1 (Q-L332; Q-L329) lateXiongnu
BTO001 M Z4a Q1a2a1c (Q-L330) lateXiongnu
IMA004 M G2a+152 Q1a2a lateXiongnu
IMA006 M A24 Q1a1a1 lateXiongnu

 

Не сказать к примеру , что у хунну Q- М120 была так распространена , как у плиточников. Скорее наоборот, не была. У хунну, как и у современных тюркских народов чаще встречается  Q-L330.

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