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Решил открыть новую тему для всяких мелких новостей из мира палеогенетики, чтобы не плодить кучу новых тем.

Анонсированы результаты полногеномного секвенирования черепной крышки из Салхита, палеолит Монголии. Оказалась женщина-сапиенс, генетически близка человеку из Тяньюаня:

Genomic analyses of the 34,000-year-old Salkhit individual from Mongolia.

Diyendo Massilani1, Thibaut Devièse2, Mateja Hajdinjak1,SeonbokYi3, Jungeun Lee3, Damdinsuren Tseveendorj4,Byambaa Gunchinsuren4, Tom Higham2, Matthias Meyer1, Janet Kelso1, Ben Peter1, Svante Pääbo1, Laurits Skov1

1 - Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany ·
2 - Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK ·
3 - Seoul National University, Seoul,Korea ·
4 - Institute of History and Archaeology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

In recent years, the sequencing of many ancient early modern human genomes from West Eurasia has provided insights into the human population history in Europe [1]. In contrast, only four genomes from early modern humans in Siberia and one in East Asia have been generated, which limits our grasp of the genetic history of early East Eurasians [1]. Here, we present the genomic analyses of a hominin skull cap discovered in 2006 during mining operations in the Salkhit Valley, Northeastern Mongolia [2]. To our knowledge, the specimen remains the only Pleistocene hominin found so far in the country. Discovered outside any archeological context, the age and the ancestry of the specimen have been debated since its discovery and the presence of peculiar morphological features has led to potential affiliation to archaic hominin groups [3], [4]. We used a compound-specific radiocarbon dating approach to determine the age of the Salkhit individual to 34,950 - 33,900 Cal. BP (at 95% probability), placing the specimen in the Mongolian Early Upper Paleolithic period. We also determined its complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and showed that it belongs to the modern human haplogroup N which is widespread in Eurasia today [5]. Nuclear analyses of the specimen show that the Salkhit individual was a female modern human. To investigate her relatedness to archaic hominin and ancient and present day modern humans, we used hybridization capture of 3.9 million single nucleotide polymorphisms across the nuclear genome. We use f3 and D statistics to show that she was closely related to the 40,000-year-old Tianyuan individual from China but shares more alleles with Western and North-Eastern Eurasians than does the Tianyuan individual. Using an admixture graph, the Salkhit individual is positioned as an ancient East Asian with some genetic contribution from West Eurasian. This scenario underlies an unexpected genetic link between East and West Eurasians after their major split. Using a new method to identify archaic introgressed DNA in ancient genome data, we estimate Neandertal ancestry in the Salkhit individual to∼2%, and show that this ancestry is contained in longer DNA tracks than those of present-day Eurasians – as expected given the age of the specimen. We also show that approximately 0.2-0.3% of the Salkhit genome is derived from Denisovans and identified longer tracts (>0.2 cM) of Denisovan ancestry in the Salkhit and other ancient East Eurasians genomes than in present-day East Eurasians genomes. This is the first evidence of Denisovan ancestry in Upper Pleistocene modern humans in East Eurasia. It is in sharp contrast to West Eurasia where we found no evidence for Denisovan introgression at the same resolution in early or later modern humans. The genome of the Salkhit individual provides further evidence for a complex population history of Pleistocene modern humans across Eurasia involving population substructure, migration and admixture. Those results emphasize the mosaic of events that shaped the genetic landscape of modern human since the Upper Pleistocene.

Статья про находку из Салхита:

  • Одобряю 2

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